A conduit for the free passage of surface drainage water under a highway,
railroad, canal, or other embankment. Proper culvert design prevents the
hazards and concurrent expenses of washouts, erosion, flooding, and inundation
of adjacent land. Culverts require that pipe are strong to meet the
embankment earth and traffic loads encountered, durable, resistant to abrasion
and combustion, and are available in versatile shapes.
Applicable Specifications and Recommended Use
Pipe and Special Shapes
ASTM C 76 Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer
C 76 pipe is used for sizes 12" - 144" in diameter and is available
with bell and spigot or tongue and groove ends utilizing cement mortar or mastic
compound joints. These joints are adequate for most storm sewer installations. For
special conditions of internal or external head, joints may be provided meeting
the requirements of ASTM C 443 or ASTM C 361 utilizing a rubber gasket. This
type of pipe is the most commonly used storm sewer pipe because of its excellent
hydraulic capacity, capabilities in meeting any variety of load conditions, and
its excellent hydraulic capacity. It is available with a number of related
ASTM C 655 Reinforced Concrete D-Load Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer
C 655 pipe is used for sizes 12" - 144" diameters designed for specific
D-Load strengths. Joints provided for most culvert construction employ
cement mortar or mastic compound. The properties of the pipe are similar
to ASTM C 76 pipe except that the pipe may be designed for a specific D-Load strength and the design accepted on the basis of a statistical analysis of test
Special Shape Pipe and Precast Concrete Boxes
Also available for culvert use are the following special shape pipe and
precast boxes with the same characteristics and properties as given for
ASTM C 506 Reinforced Concrete Arch Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe
ASTM C 507 Reinforced Concrete Elliptical Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer
ASTM C 789 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Sections for Culverts, Storm
Drain, and Sewers
ASTM C 850 Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Sections for Culverts, Strom
Drains and Sewers With Less Than 2’ of Cover Subjected to Highway Loadings.
ASTM C 1433 Standard Specification for Precast Reinforced Concrete Box Sections For Culverts, Storm Drains and Sewers.
C1433 Specification covers single-cell precast reinforced concrete box sections intended to be used for the construction of culverts for the conveyance of storm water, industrial wastes and sewage.
Cement Mortar and Mastic Compound
All pipe, special shapes, and boxes are available with tongue and groove joints
that may be packed with cement mortar, filled with a preformed plastic gasket
sealing compound, or a trowel applied mastic compound. Such joints have a record
of successful use in culverts. Properly applied mastic joint fillers
provide flexibility without impairing watertightness.
ASTM C 443 Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe, Using Rubber Gaskets
C 443 joints are intended for use with pipe manufactured to meet the requirements of ASTM C 14 or ASTM C 76 and may be used with either bell and spigot or tongue and groove pipe. The joint is made up of concrete surfaces with a compression type rubber gasket. These joints are normally used in sanitary sewers to hold infiltration and exfiltration to a practical minimum and are adequate for hydrostatic heads up to 30'.
ASTM C361 Reinforced Concrete to Low-Head Pressure Pipe (Joints)
C 361 joints are employed for use with pipe manufactured to meet the requirements of ASTM C76. The joint is made up of concrete surfaces with a groove on the spigot for an O-ring rubber gasket (also referred to as a confined O-ring type joint). These joints are normally used in gravity sewers where exceptional tightness is required. This type of joint provides excellent inherent water tightness in both the straight and deflected position and meets all the joint requirements of ASTM C 443.
The R-4 pipe joint with a thicker bell and spigot is a variation of the ASTM C 361 joint proposed and effected by the Bureau of Reclamation.