A conduit that carries liquid and water-carried wastes from homes, commercial
facilities, industrial plants and institutions to a treatment plant for
the express purpose of protecting our environment, safe-guarding health,
and improving our comforts and quality of life.
Concrete pipe is the most widely used and accepted permanent product of all sanitary
sewer materials. It makes up the greater portion of the sanitary sewer
system in every major city in the United States. Sanitary sewers require
that pipe are watertight, meet the strength conditions of any depth of backfill
and superimposed load, and provide resistance to the effects of sewage.
Applicable Specifications and Recommended Use
Pipe and Special Shapes
ASTM C 14 Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe (non-reinforced)
C14 pipe is to be used for sizes 6" - 10" diameter. It may be
used for sizes 12" - 24" diameter with the provision that C 76 pipe
of comparable strength also be specified. For installations
with internal or external head conditions, joints may be provided as per
ASTM C 443 utilizing a rubber gasket.
ASTM C 76 Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe
C 76 pipe is used for sizes 12" - 144" in diameters and is available
with ASTM C 443 joint or ASTM C 361 joint when required. This type of reinforced
concrete pipe is the most commonly used sanitary sewer pipe because of its capabilities
in meeting any variety or load conditions and its excellent hydraulic capacity. It
is available with a number of related appurtenances.
ASTM C 655 Reinforced Concrete D-Load Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer
C 655 pipe is used for sizes 12" - 144" diameters designed for specific
D-Load strengths. Joints provided shall meet the requirements of ASTM
C 443 or ASTM C361. The properties of the pipe are similar to ASTM
C 76 pipe except that the pipe may be designed for a specific D-Load strength
and the design accepted on the basis of a statistical analysis of test
Joints recommended for circular sanitary sewers where infiltration or
exfiltration is a factor in design are the following flexible watertight
joints using compression type rubber gaskets for sealing the joints.
ASTM C 443 Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe, Using
C 443 joints are intended for use with pipe manufactured to meet the requirements
of ASTM C 14 or ASTM C 76 and may be used with either bell and spigot or tongue
and groove pipe. The joint is made up of concrete surfaces, with a compression
type rubber gasket. These joints are normally used in sanitary sewers to
hold infiltration and exfiltration to a practical minimum and are adequate for
hydrostatic heads up to 30'.
ASTM C 361 Reinforced Concrete Low-Head Pressure Pipe (Joints)
C 361 joints are employed for use with pipe manufactured to meet the requirements
of ASTM C 76. The joint is made up of concrete surfaces with a groove
on the spigot for an O-ring rubber gasket (also referred to as a confined O-ring
type joint). These joints are normally used in gravity sewers where exceptional
tightness is required. This type of joint provides excellent inherent
water tightness in both the straight and deflected position and meets all the
joint requirements of ASTM C 443.
The R-4 pipe joint with a thicker bell and spigot is a variation of the ASTM
C 361 joint proposed and effected by the Bureau of Reclamation.